Latest Research

Research is a central focus at Drexel LeBow. Our faculty are regularly published in top tier and highly respected journals across the country and internationally. Below is a regularly updated listing of the most recently published research. For additional information on LeBow’s research initiatives, contact Raj Suri, associate dean of research, at

Additionally, LeBow students at all levels are encouraged to engage in research. Find out more about current PhD student research and research conducted by undergraduate students through the STAR Scholars research program.

Recent Works

Hendiani, S., Lev, Benjamin, and Gharehbaghi, A., Diagnosing social failures in sustainable supply chains using a modified Pythagorean fuzzy distance to ideal solution. Computers and Industrial Engineering 154 (Apr 2021): 107156.

Zhou, X., Chen, K., Wen, H., Lin, J., Zhang, K., Tian, X., Wang, S., and Lev, Benjamin, Integration of third-party platforms: does it really hurt them?. International Journal of Production Economics 234 (Apr 2021): 108003.

Albert, Daniel, and Siggelkow, Nicolaj, Architectural Search and Innovation. Organization Science (Mar 2021):

Wang, Conglong, Le-Scherban, Felice, Taylor, Jennifer, Salmoirago-blotcher, Elana, Allison, Matthew A., Gefen, David, Robinson, Lucy, and Michael, Yvonne, The Associations of Job Strain, Life Events and Social Strain with Coronary Heart Disease in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Journal of the American Heart Association 10 (Mar 2021): e017780.

Fresneda, Jorge, Burnham, Thomas, and Hill, Chelsey, Structural Topic Modeling Segmentation: A Segmentation Method Combining Latent Content and Customer Context. Journal of Marketing Management (Feb 2021):

Dwertmann, David J. G., and van Knippenberg, Daan, Capturing the state of the science to change the state of the science: A categorization approach to integrative reviews. Journal of Organizational Behavior 42 (Feb 2021): 104-117.

Nacarelli, Victoria, and Gefen, David, Trustworthiness and the Adoption of Business Analytics. Information Systems Management (Feb 2021):

Zhou, X., Li, L., Wen, H., Tian, X., Wang, S., and Lev, Benjamin, Supplier’s goal setting considering sustainability: An uncertain dynamic Data Envelopment Analysis based benchmarking model. Information Sciences 545 (Feb 2021): 44-46.

Brisley, Neil, Cai, Jie, and Nguyen, Tu, Required CEO stock ownership: Consequences for risk-taking and compensation. Journal of Corporate Finance 66 (Year 2021):

Steffens, Nik K., Munt, Katie A., van Knippenberg, Daan, Platow, Michael J., and Haslam, S. Alexander, Advancing the social identity theory of leadership: A meta-analytic review of leader group prototypicality. Organizational Psychology Review 11 (Feb 2021): 35-72.

Hammoudeh, Shawkat, Trabelsi, N., Gozgor, G., and Tiwari, A., Stock Exchange Sectoral Indices: New Evidence for Portfolio Risk Management. Research in International Business and Finance 55 (Aug 2020):

Zhang, J., Yang, D., Li, Q., Lev, Benjamin, and Ma, Y., Research on Sustainable Supplier Selection Based on the Rough DEMATEL and FVIKOR Methods. Sustainability Journal 13 (Jan 2021): 88.

Zhou, X., Wei, X., Lin, J, Tian, X., Lev, Benjamin, and Wang, S., Supply chain management under carbon taxes: A review and bibliometric analysis. OMEGA 98 (Jan 2021): 102295.

Hill, Chelsey, Li, James, Schneider, Matthew, and Wells, Martin T., The Tensor Auto-Regressive Model. Journal of Forecasting (Jan 2021):

Hammoudeh, Shawkat, Mokni, K., Ajmi, A.N., and Youssef, M., Does economic policy uncertainty drive the dynamic connectedness between oil price shocks and the gold price?. Resources Policy 69 (Aug 2020):

D’Angelo, Dana C., Cataline, Jodi, and Maxey, Christian, Global Out of the Gate. The Academic Leader December 14, 2020 (Dec 2020):

Zhou, X., Lev, Benjamin, and Anderson, H. S., OMEGA Statistics and Trends during the EVISE era. OMEGA 97 (Dec 2020): 102306.

Lev, Benjamin, Obituary - Samuel Eilon. OMEGA 97 (Dec 2020): 102299.

Wu, Ji, Chen, Limei, Chen, Minghua, and Jeon, Bang Nam, Diversification, efficiency and risk of banks: Evidence from emerging economies. Emerging Markets Review 45 (Dec 2020): 1-29.

Fang, Jin, and Partovi, F. Y., A Hits-Based Model for Facility Location Decision. Expert Systems With Applications 159 (Nov 2020): 1-11.

Vermeer, Beth Y., Spilker, Brian C., and Curatola, Anthony, The Effects of Economic and Social Bonds with Clients on Tax Professionals’ Recommendations. Journal of American Taxation Association 42 (Fall 2020): 145-158.

Dai, Xin, and Qiu, Yue, Common Ownership and Corporate Social Responsibility. The Review of Corporate Finance Studies (Nov 2020):

Curatola, Anthony, Harden, J. William, Rinier, James W., and Upton, David, Business Tax Planning Issues for 2021. Journal of Financial Services Professionals (Nov 2020): 39-48.

Hong, Suting, Serfes, Konstantinos, and Thiele, Veikko, Competition in the Venture Capital Market and the Success of Startup Companies: Theory and Evidence. Journal of Economics and Management Strategy 29 (Winter 2020): 741-791.

Jeon, Bang Nam, Lim, Hosung, and Wu, Ji, Spillover effects of global monetary shocks on foreign banks: Evidence from an emerging market. International Finance Review 21 (Oct 2020): 113-127.

Fresneda, Jorge, and Gefen, David, Gazing at The Stars Is Not Enough, Look at The Specific Word Entropy, Too!. Information & Management 57 (Dec 2020):

Hammoudeh, Shawkat, Tiwari, A., Pradhan, H., and Mishra, B.R., Macroeconomic factors and frequency domain causality between Gold and Silver returns in India. Resources Policy 68 (Jun 2020):

Hammoudeh, Shawkat, Khalfaoui, R., Tiwari, A., and Padhan, H., Understanding the time-frequency dynamics of money demand, oil prices and macroeconomic variables: The case of India. Resources Policy 68 (Jun 2020):

Hendiani, S., Liao, H., Ren, R., and Lev, Benjamin, A likelihood-based multi-criteria sustainable supplier selection approach with complex preference information. Information Sciences 536 (Oct 2020): 135-155.

Korschun, Daniel, Martin, Kelly D., and Vadakkepatt, Gautham, Marketing’s Role in Understanding Political Activity. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing 39 (Fall 2020): 378-387.

Hammoudeh, Shawkat, Shahbaz, M., Kablane, K., and Nasi, M.A., Environmental Implications of Increased US Oil Production and Liberal Growth Agenda in Post-Paris Agreement Era. Journal of Environment Management 271 (Jul 2020): 110785.

van Knippenberg, Daan, and Hirst, Giles, A motivational lens model of person x situation interactions in employee creativity. Journal of Applied Psychology 105 (Oct 2020): 1129-1144.

Cohen, Alex H., Fresneda, Jorge, and Anderson, Rolph E., What Retailers Need To Understand About Website Inaccessibility and Disabled Consumers: Challenges and Opportunities. Journal of Consumer Affairs 54 (Sep 2020): 854-889.

Yotov, Yoto, and Anderson, James E., Short Run Gravity. Journal of International Economics 126 (Sep 2020):

Lev, Benjamin, Goodbye EVISE and welcome Editorial Manager!. OMEGA 96 (Oct 2020): 102284.

Wu, Ji, Yao, Yao, Chen, Minghua, and Jeon, Bang Nam, Economic Uncertainty and Bank Risk: Evidence from Emerging Economies. Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money 68 (Sep 2020): 1-32.

Curatola, Anthony, Harden, J. William, Rinier, James W., and Upton, David, Retirement Income Planning Issues for 2021. Journal of Financial Services Professionals (Sep 2020): 1-11.

Graham, Katrina, Resick, Christian, Margolis, Jaclyn, Shao, Ping, Hargis, Michael, and Kiker, Jason, Egoistic Norms, Organizational Identification, and the Perceived Ethicality of Unethical Pro-Organizational Behavior: A Moral Maturation Perspective. Human Relations 73 (Sep 2020): 1249-1277.

Hammoudeh, Shawkat, Agnelo, L., Castro, V., and Sousa, R., Global factors, uncertainty, weather conditions and energy prices: On the drivers of the duration of commodity price cycle phases. Energy Eonomics 90 (Jul 2020):

Hammoudeh, Shawkat, Jenna, S.K., and Tiwari, A., Dynamics of FII flows and stock market returns in a major developing country: How does economic uncertainty matter?. The World Economy 43 (Jun 2019): 2033-2284.

Chiang, Thomas C., U.S. Policy Uncertainty and Stock Returns: Evidence in the U.S. and Its Spillovers to European Union, China and Japan. Journal of Risk Finance (Aug 2020):

Yotov, Yoto, Anderson, James E., and Larch, Mario, Transitional Growth and Trade with Frictions: A Structural Estimation Framework. Economic Journal 130 (Aug 2020): 1583-1607.

Hammoudeh, Shawkat, Paramati, S.R., Hafeez, K., and Alam, M.S., Long run relationship between R&D investment and environmental sustainability: Evidence from the European Union member countries. International Journal of Finance and Economics (Aug 2020):

DErasmo, Pablo, Moscoso Boedo, Hernan, Olivero, Maria P., and Sangiacomo, Maximo, Sovereign Default and the Bank-Lending Channel of Monetary Policy. IMF Economic Review (Aug 2020):

Chang, Hsihui, Hall, Curtis, and Paz, Michael, Suppliers Product Market Competition, Customer Concentration, and Cost Structure. Journal of Management Accounting Research (Aug 2020):

Coulter, Keith, and Suri, Rajneesh, On Melodic Contour and Number Preferences: The Effects of Musical Melody on the Processing of Numerical Information. Psychology & Marketing (Aug 2020): 1019-1030.

Gefen, David, Ben Assuli, Ofir, Shlomo, Nir, Robertson, Noreen, and Klempfner, Robert, A Case-Study of Applying Text Analysis to Identify Possible Adverse Drug Interactions: The Case of Adalat (Nifedipine). Health Informatics Journal 26 (Jul 2020): 1060-1078.

Gao, Ronnie, Murphy, William H., and Anderson, Rolph E., Transformational Leadership Effects On Salespeople’s Attitudes, Striving, and Performance. Journal of Business Research 110 (Jul 2020): 237-245.

Lantushenko, Viktoriya, and Nelling, Edward, Active Management in Real Estate Mutual Funds. Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics 61 (Aug 2020): 247-274.

Spratt, Olivia, Deutsch, Jonathan, and Suri, Rajneesh, Defining Upcycled Food Products. Journal of Culinary Science & Technology (Jul 2020):

Ma, Dali, Narayanan, V.K., Liu, Chuanren, and Fakharizadi, Ehsan, Boundary Salience: The Interactive Effect of Organizational Status Distance and Geographical Proximity on Coauthorship Tie Formation. Social Networks 63 (Jul 2020): 162-173.

Mi, X., Liao, H., Liao, Y., Qi, L., Lev, Benjamin, and Al-Barakati, A., Green Supplier Selection by an integrated method with Stochastic Acceptability Analysis and MULTIMOORA. Technological and Economic Development of Economy 26 (Jul 2020): 594-572.

Gan, L., Shi, H., Hu, Y., Lev, Benjamin, and Lan, H., Coupling Coordination Degree for Urbanization City-Industry Integration Level: Sichuan Case. Sustainable Cities and Society 58 (Jul 2020): 102136.

Ming, Y., Luo, L., Wu, X., Liao, H., Lev, Benjamin, and Jiang, L., Managing Patient Satisfaction in a Blood-Collection Room by the Probabilistic Linguistic Gained and Lost Dominance Score Method Integrated with the Best-Worst Method. Computers and Industrial Engineering 145 (Jul 2020): 106547.

Mathieu, John E, Luciano, Margaret, D’Innocenzo, Lauren, Klock, Elizabeth, and LePine, Jeffrey, The Development and Construct Validity of a Team Processes Survey Measure. Organizational Research Methods 23 (Jul 2020): 399-431.

Chiang, Thomas C., Evidence of risk and policy uncertainty on stock-bond return correlations in the US markets. Risks 8 (Jun 2020): 58.

Chandran, Suresh, and Anandarajan, Murugan, Decision Support System for Selecting Alternatives to Jet Fuel: Impacts of Emissions, Production Costs and Carbon Pricing. Journal of Management and Sustainability 10 (Jun 2020): 13.

Liao, Yi, Li, Jun, Hu, Xinxin, Li, Ying, and Shen, Wenjing, Application of Lateral Transshipment in Cost Reduction of Decentralized Systems. Sustainability Journal (Jun 2020):

Kurz, David B., After COVID, developing the right digital supply chain talent will be harder than ever. Supply Chain Management Review (Jun 2020):

Chiang, Thomas C., Economic policy uncertainty and stock returns - evidence from the Japanese market. Quantitative Finance and Economics 4 (Jun 2020): 430-458.

Hammoudeh, Shawkat, Elheddad, M., Djellouli, A.K., and Tiwari, A., The relationship between energy consumption and fiscal decentralization: Evidence from Chinese provinces. Journal of Environment Management 264 (Jun 2020): 110474.

Ye, Hongjun, Bhatt, Siddharth, Haeyoung, Jung, Zhang, Jintao, and Suri, Rajneesh, Red Price? Red Flag! Eye-tracking Reveals How One Red Price Can Hurt a Retailer. Psychology & Marketing 37 (Jul 2020): 928-941.

Appels, Moritz, Edinger-Schons, Laura, Korschun, Daniel, and Balk, Luisa, Don’t mix business with politics? Understanding stakeholder reactions to corporate political activism. Marketing Review of St. Gallen 37 (Year 2020): 888-894.

Wang, C., Lim, M. K., Zhao, L., Tseng, M-L, Chien, C-F, and Lev, Benjamin, The evolution of Omega-The International Journal of Management Science over the past 40 years: A bibliometric overview. OMEGA 93 (Jun 2020): 102098.

Olivero, Maria P., Lending Relationships and Labor Market Dynamics. European Economic Review (May 2020):

Sargent, Amanda, Watson, Jan, Ye, Hongjun, Suri, Rajneesh, and Ayaz, Hasan, Neuroergonomic assessment of hot beverage preparation and consumption: An EEG and EDA Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (May 2020):

Hall, Curtis, Brushwood, James, and Rapley, Eric, Regulatory Uncertainty and Audit Fees: Evidence from Cannabis Legalization and Financial Institutions. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy 39 (May 2020):

Qi, L., Zhao, Q., and Lev, Benjamin, Cold chain transportation decision in the vaccine supply chain. European Journal of Operational Research 283 (May 2020): 182-195.

Chang, Hsihui, Dai, Xin, He, Y., and Wang, M., How Internal Control Protects Shareholders Welfare: Evidence from Tax Avoidance in China. Journal of International Accounting Research 19 (Apr 2020): 19-39.

Chang, Hsihui, Dai, Xin, He, Yurun, and Wang, Maolin, How Internal Control Protects Shareholders’ Welfare: Evidence from Tax Avoidance in China. Journal of International Accounting Research 19 (Summer 2020): 19-39.

Chen, Xiaoyu, and Chiang, Thomas C., Empirical investigation of changes in policy uncertainty on stock returns - Evidence from China’s market. Research in International Business and Finance 53 (Apr 2020):

Li, Ying, Liao, Yi, Hu, Xinxin, and Shen, Wenjing, Lateral Transshipment with Partial Request and Random Switching. OMEGA (Apr 2020):

Zhou, Rui, Liao, Yi, Shen, Wenjing, and Yang, Shilei, Channel Selection and Fulfillment Service Contracts in the Presence of Asymmetric Service Information. International Journal of Production Economics (Apr 2020):

Sargent, Amanda, Watson, Jan, Topoglu, Yigit, Ye, Hongjun, Suri, Rajneesh, and Ayaz, Hasan, Impact of Tea and Coffee Consumption on Cognitive Performance: An fNIRS and EDA Study. Applied Sciences (Apr 2020):

Lo, Jade, Nag, Rajiv, Lu, Xei, and Anak Agung Istri, Shanti Dewi, Organizational innovation efforts in multiple emerging market categories: Exploring the interplay of opportunity, ambiguity, and socio-cognitive contexts. Research Policy 49 (Apr 2020):

Greenbaum, Rebecca L., Bonner, Julena, Mawritz, Mary, Butts, Marcus, and Smith, Mickey, It is all about the bottom line: Group bottom-line mentality, psychological safety, and group creativity. Journal of Organizational Behavior (Mar 2020):

Gefen, David, Fresneda, Jorge, and Larsen, Kai R., Trust and Distrust as Artifacts of Language: A Latent Semantic Approach to Studying their Linguistic Correlates. Frontiers in Psychology 11 (Mar 2020): 1-14.

van Knippenberg, Daan, Meaning-based leadership. Organizational Psychology Review 10 (Feb 2020): 6-28.

Gan, L., Jiang, P., Lev, Benjamin, and Zhou, X., Balancing of supply and demand of Renewable Energy power system: A review and bibliometric analysis. Sustainable Futures 2 (Mar 2020): 100013.

Hammoudeh, Shawkat, Madaleno, M., Buhari, D., and Tiwari, A., Impacts of Export Quality on Environmental Degradation: Does Income Matter?. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 27 (Feb 2020):

Yotov, Yoto, Syropoulos, Constantinos A., and Garfinkel, Michelle R., Arming in the Global Economy: The Importance of Trade with Enemies and Friends. Journal of International Economics 123 (Mar 2020):

Zhou, X., Chen, H., Chai, J., Wang, S., and Lev, Benjamin, Performance evaluation and prediction of the integrated circuit industry in China: A hybrid method. Socio-Economic Planning Science 69 (Mar 2020): 1-12.

Lantushenko, Viktoriya, and Nelling, Edward, New positions in mutual fund portfolios: Implications for fund alpha. Journal of Financial Services Research 58 (Mar 2020): 161&#-775232;198.

Anderson, Rolph E., Cohen, Alex, Christ, Paul, Mehta, Rajiv, and Dubinsky, Alan, Provenance, Evolution, and Transition of Personal Selling and Sales Management To Strategic Marketing Channel Management. Journal of Marketing Channels 26(1) (Feb 2020): 28-42.

Schneider, Matthew, Protecting Survey Data on a Consumer Level. Journal of Marketing Analytics (Year 2020):

Grazzini, Laura, Acuti, Diletta, Mazzoli, V, Petruzzellis, Luca, and Korschun, Daniel, Standing for politics: What consequences for brands?. Italian Journal of Marketing (Feb 2020): 49-65.

Liu, J-C., Zhao, W-J., Lev, Benjamin, Li, D-F., Sheu, J-B., and Dai, Y-W, Novel Equal Division Values Based on Players’ Excess Vectors and their Applications to Logistics Enterprise Coalitions. Information Sciences 512 (Feb 2020): 1543-1554.

Nag, Rajiv, Neville, Francois, and Dimotakis, Nikolaos, CEO scanning behaviors, Self-efficacy, and SME innovation and performance: An examination within a declining industry. Journal of Small Business Management 58 (Year 2020): 164-199.

Lo, Jade, Fiss, Peer C., Rhee, Eunice, and Kennedy, Mark T., Category Viability: Balanced Levels of Coherence and Distinctiveness. Academy of Management Review 45 (Jan 2020): 85-108.

Hammoudeh, Shawkat, Mensi, W., Ur Rehman, M, Al-Maadid, A. A., and Kang, S.H., Dynamic risk spillovers and portfolio risk management between precious metals and global foreign exchange markets. THE NORTH AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS AND FINANCE 51 (Oct 2019):

Khattab, Jasmien, van Knippenberg, Daan, Nederveen Pieterse, Anne, and Hernandez, Morela, A network utilization perspective on the leadership advancement of minorities. Academy of Management Review 45 (Jan 2020): 109-129.

Bradley, Sebastien, and Feldman, Naomi E., Hidden Baggage: Behavioral Responses to Changes in Airline Ticket Tax Disclosure. American Economic Journal - Economic Policy 12 (Nov 2020): 58-87.

Cintron, Alicia M., Levine, Jeffrey, and McCray, Kristy L., Preventing sexual violence on college campuses: An investigation of current practices of conducting background checks on student athletes. Journal of Legal Aspects of Sport 30 (Jan 2020): 41-62.

Cao, Qingqing, Minetti, Raoul, Olivero, Maria P., and Romanini, Giacomo, Recessions and Recoveries: Multinational Banks in the Business Cycles. Journal of Monetary Economics (forthcoming) (Dec 2019):

Lee, Jinwook, and Kim, Jongpil, Partially ordered data sets and a new efficient method for calculating multivariate conditional value-at-risk. Annals of Operations Research (Dec 2019):

Ndubizu, Gordian, and Yin, Jennifer, Asymmetric sensitivity of executive bonus compensation to earnings and the effect of regulatory changes. Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting 53 (2019) (Dec 2019): 845-869.

Zhou, X., Wang, Y., Chai, J., Wang, L., Wang, S., and Lev, Benjamin, Sustainable supply chain evaluation: A dynamic double frontier network DEA model with interval type-2 fuzzy data. Information Sciences 504 (Dec 2019): 394-421.

Wu, Ji, Guo, Mengmeng, Chen, Minghua, and Jeon, Bang Nam, Market power and risk-taking of banks: Some semiparametric evidence from emerging economies. Emerging Markets Review 41 (Dec 2019): 1-21.

Han, Jung Ah, Feit, Elea M., and Srinivasan, Shuba, Negative buzz can increase awareness and purchase intent. Marketing Letters 31 (Nov 2019): 89-104.

Swaminathan, Srinivasan, Anderson, Rolph E., and Song, Lei, Building Loyalty in E-Commerce: Impact of Business and Customer Characteristics. Journal of Marketing Channels 25 (Fall 2019): 22-35.

Haski-Leventhal, Debbie, and Korschun, Daniel, Building Effective Corporate Engagement on LGBTQ Rights. MIT/Sloan Management Review (Digital) (Fall 2019):

Hill, Chelsey, and McCullough, B D., On the Accuracy of GARCH Estimation in R Packages. Econometric Research in Finance 4 (Nov 2019): 133-156.

Kearney, Eric, Shemla, Meir, van Knippenberg, Daan, and Scholz, Florian, A Paradox Perspective on the Interactive Effects of Visionary and Empowering Leadership. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 155 (Nov 2019): 20-30.

Schubel, Laura, Littlejohn, Robin, Romero Barrientos, R, Arnold, Ryan, Capan, Muge, and Miller, Kristen, Everything but the Kitchen Sink: A Mixed Methods Approach to Health IT Usability Testing. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting 2019 (Nov 2019):

Yotov, Yoto, Larch, Mario, and Anderson, James E., Trade and Investment in the Global economy: A multi-country dynamic analysis. European Economic Review 120 (Nov 2020):

Feit, Elea M., and Berman, Ron, Test and Roll: Profit-Maximizing A/B Tests. Marketing Science 38 (Nov 2019): 913-1084.

Gombola, Michael J., Chou, David, and Liu, Feng-Ying, Capital Structure Dynamics with Restricted Equity Issuance: Evidence from Chinese post-IPO firms. Asia Pacific Management Review 24 (Fall 2019): 72-85.

Hammoudeh, Shawkat, Bouioyour, J., Selmi, R., and Wohar, M., What are the categories of geopolitical risks that could drive oil prices higher? Acts or threats?&#-775232;. Energy Economics 84 (Oct 2019):

Qi, L., Liao, H., and Lev, Benjamin, Games with Interval-Valued Linguistic Payoffs. The 49th International Conference on Computers & Industrial Engineering (Oct 2019):

Leimeister, Jan Marco, Becker, Jorg, Heinzl, Armin, Winter, Robert, and Gefen, David, Doing a Doctorate in BISE in Germany, Austria and Switzerland? A Debate on the Why, What and How. Business & Information Systems Engineering (Oct 2019):

Wagner, Tillmann, Korschun, Daniel, and Troebs, Christian, Deconstructing Corporate Hypocrisy: Delineating its Behavioral, Moral, and Attributional Facets. Journal of Business Research (Oct 2019):

Hammoudeh, Shawkat, Gozgor, Giray, Shahbaz, M., and Adom, P. K., The Technical Decomposition of Carbon Emissions and the Concerns about FDI and Trade Openness Effects in the United States. International Economics 159 (May 2019): 56-73.